writing جميع مواضيع الإنجليزية للباكالوريا💯💯💯💯
When your parents were young, people could buy cigarettes and smoke pretty much anywhere – even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes were all over the place. Today we’re more aware about how bad smoking is for our health. Smoking is restricted or banned in almost all public places and cigarette companies are no longer allowed to advertise on buses or trains, billboards, TV, and in many magazines.
Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer, emphysema, and heart disease; that it can shorten your life by 14 years or more; and that the habit can cost a smoker thousands of dollars a year. So how come people are still lighting up!
Disposing of the rubbish we produce every day is a major problem in cities around the world. In Britain, 85% of waste is disposed by landfill, a system which is supposed to prevent pollution, since waste is buried in the ground. This method is far from perfect; however, finding new areas is becoming difficult. Recycling is an increasingly popular way of getting rid of waste, and in Britain a target of recycling half of all domestic recyclable waste has been set for the coming years.
A city that has solved its waste disposal problem in an unusual way is Machida, in Japan. They have developed a totally new approach to waste disposal. The key to the operation is public co-operation. Families must divide their rubbish into six categories.
rubbish that can be easily burnt (combustible), such as kitchen and garden waste.
non-combustible rubbish such as small electric appliances, plastic tools and plastic toys.
products that are toxic or that cause pollution, such as batteries.bottles and glass containers that can be recycled.
l containers that can be recycled.
large items such as furniture and bicycles.
T he items in categories 1-5 are collected on different days; (large items are only collected on request.) Then the rubbish is taken to a centre that looks like a clean new office building or hospital. Inside, special equipment is used to sort and process the waste. Almost everything can be reused. Kitchen or garden waste becomes fertilizer; combustible items are burnt to produce electricity; containers and bottles are recycled and old furniture, clothing and other useful items are cleaned, repaired and resold cheaply or given away. The work provides employment for disabled people and gives them a chance to learn new skills. Nowadays, officials from cities around the world visit Machida to see whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own waste disposal problems.
Many cities around the world today are heavily polluted. Careless manufacturing methods employed by some industries and absence of consumer demand for environmentally safe products have been behind the pollution problem. One result is that millions of tons of glass, paper, plastic and ****l containers are produced, and these are difficult to dispose of.
However, today more and more consumers are choosing ‘green’ and demanding that the products they buy are safe for the environment. Before they buy a product, they ask questions like these, Will this product damage the ozone layer?, Is this package of any danger to the environment? Or Can this ****l container be used once?
A recent study showed that two out of five adults now consider the
Environmental safety of a product before they buy it. This means that companies must now change the way they make and sell their products to make sure that they are ‘green’, that is, friendly to the environment.
Only a few years ago, it was impossible to find green products in supermarkets, but now there are hundreds. Some supermarket products have tickets on them to show that the product is green. Some companies have made the manufacturing of clean and safe products their main selling point and insist on it in their advertising.
The concern of a safer and cleaner environment is making companies rethink how they do business. The public will no longer accept the old attitude of Buy it, Use it and then Throw it away.
The migration of skilled individuals from developing countries has typically been considered to be costly for the sending country, due to lost investments in education, high fiscal costs and labour market distortions. Economic theory, however, raises the possibility of a beneficial brain drain primarily through improved incentives to acquire human capital. Our survey of empirical and theoretical work shows under what circumstances a developing country can benefit from skilled migration. It argues that the sectoral aspects of migration and screening of migrants in the receiving country are of major importance in determining the welfare implications of the brain drain. These issues, as well as the size of the sending country, duration of migration and the effect of diaspora populations, should be addressed in future empirical work on skilled migration
Spanish officials estimate that about 1.000 people have downed attempting to enter Europe by crossing the 10-mile wide strait of Gibraltar in the past six years , Spanish officials say that morocco is tolerating the exit of small boats .
In 1996. several hundred illegal immigrants .most Moroccans were picked up by the police and coast guard on the southern shores of Spain , morocco’s newly appointed prime mister .Aberahmane youssoufi . blamed illegal immigration on poverty , and said that policeman and walls are not solution to the illegal migration ,which should be handed with realism in order to find human solutions .
On February, the interior ministers of morocco and Italy signed a convention to cooperate in the fight against drug smuggling and illegal immigration the Italian interior minister said that a lot of Moroccans live legally in Italy .the largest foreign community in the country.
Hand in hand between Morocco and Italy to fight drugs , illegal immigration .
The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a « network of networks » that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other of the world wide web.
The USSR’s launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 to regain a technological lead. ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying human revolution.
Licklider had moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing.
At the IPTO, Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to circuit switching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first node went live at UCLA on October 29, 1969 on what would be called the ARPANET, one of the « eve » networks of today’s Internet. Following on from this, the British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated to create the first international packet switched network, referred to as the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.
The first TCP/IP-wide area network was operational by January 1, 1983, when the United States’ National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university network backbone that would later become the NSFNet.
It was then followed by the opening of the network to commercial interests in 1985. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the NSFNet include Usenet, BITNET and the various commercial and educational networks, such as X.25, Compuserve and JANET. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately-funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network eventually merged with the others in the 1990s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over these pre-existing communication networks, especially the international X.25 IPSS network, allowed for a great ease of growth. Use of the term « Internet » to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated around this time
A is the consequence of when a potential natural hazard becomes a physical event (e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslide) and this interacts with human activities. Human vulnerability, caused by the lack of planning, lack of appropriate emergency management or the event being unexpected, leads to financial, structural, and human losses. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: « disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability ». A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement
WAR is one of the wost crime that pople have ever made to the humanity. that’s why we should know why some ediot poeple can’t stand leaving in peace becuase
the best thing that can draw the smile on every one’s face is the peace. but in reality we have a deferent image to the world, we see that no one want to respect the right of other or want’s to enslave poeple or take there weals, and they make some silly reasons to get what they want exactly like what happend to
our brothers in iraq.
war also creat a very bad destarction and ruin in everywhere.
and from the main point we can say that poepl in stean of burning world they have to to learn how to leave in peace and creat the happiness instead of hate and killing
Television has became part of our every day life .what are its advantages and disadvantages
On the one hand, TV has became the most influential means of the mass media because it has both sound and picture .it’s also the most popular source of information education and international , in brief TV brings the whole word to us.
One the other hand TV develops passive and lazy viewers .it also prevents communication between the members of the family besides students don’t their homwork and may became aggressive when they watch films of violence
I think that the best things to relief from stress is to watch some sitcoms or hear something funny like jokes …person should develop his sense of humor and he should be cool , Comic and optimistic, because some expert of mental .health have noted that we can’t imagine going through a day without laughter.Humor will make every part of your life better.It will help you trough difficult times and it will help you make the good times even letter, also i twill attract good people and good situations to you
The concept of human rights has existed under several names in European thought for many centuries, at least since the time of King John of England. After the king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter, which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of as human rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free from governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit property and be free from excessive taxes. It established the right of widows who owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of due process and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbidding bribery and official misconduct.
The political and religious traditions in other parts of the world also proclaimed what have come to be called human rights, calling on rulers to rule justly and compassionately, and delineating limits on their power over the lives, property, and activities of their citizens.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe several philosophers proposed the concept of « natural rights, » rights belonging to a person by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of his citizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular religious or ethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and rejected by some philosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a formulation of the underlying principle on which all ideas of citizens’ rights and political and religious liberty were based.
In the late 1700s two revolutions occurred which drew heavily on this concept. In 1776 most of the British colonies in North America proclaimed their independence from the British Empire in a which still stirs feelings, and debate, the U.S. Declaration of Independence
Globalization refers to increasing global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, and ecological spheres. Globalization is an umbrella term and is perhaps best understood as a unitary process inclusive of many sub-processes (such as enhanced economic interdependence, increased cultural influence, rapid advances of information technology, and novel governance and geopolitical challenges) that are increasingly binding people and the biosphere more tightly into one global system.
There are several definitions and all usually mention the increasing connectivity of economies and ways of life across the world. The Encyclopedia Britannica says that globalization is the « process by which the experience of everyday life … is becoming standardized around theworld. » While some scholars and observers of globalization stress convergence of patterns of production and consumption and a resulting homogenization of culture, others stress that globalization has the potential to take many diverse forms
Racism or racialism is a form of race, especially the belief that one race is superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races.
In the 19th century many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through scientific theories about biological differences among races. Today, most scientists have rejected the biological basis of race or the validity of « race » as a scientific concept. Racism, then, becomes discrimination based on alleged race. Racists themselves usually do believe that humans are divided into different races.
There are two main definitions of racism today. One of them states that racism is dicrimination based on alleged race, the other – newer – one states that racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion or culture
right of women
Nowadays we take it for granted that women have the same rights as men before the first world war few people believed this.
As far as work was concerned there were jobs wich were regarded as women
s jobs and other wiche were regarded as mens jobs. Women
s jobs were generally lower paid as mens. Men did almost all the heavy jobs in industry or in transport.
Women had jobs like dress-making,cleanning or worked as servants.
Women`s main role was as being to raise childeren and look for their home. Women were not expected to take position of leaderschip. Women were not even allowed to vote in elections.
Before the war some women had been struggling to achieve greater equality with men. The most famous of these had been the suffragettes who stagged a violent campaign against the govervment from 1905 to 1914 trying to achieve the right to vote.however, at the outbreak of war, the were still no near to success. Many men argued that women were unsuited to such responsibility that women could not be trusted to vote sensibly that women should not concern themselves with such male activities and voting.